The Law on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Wastes determines the principles of solid waste pollution prevention and control as reduction, recycling, and harmlessness. Reduction-Cleaner Production: ^ Reduce the generation of solid waste to a large extent; Reuse-Comprehensive Utilization: Turn valuable solid waste into waste and realize recycling of resources; Harmlessness-Safe disposal: Final disposal (incineration and landfill) of comprehensive treatment of solid wastes without value.
1. There are three pretreatment methods: ⑴ compaction. ⑵ Broken. (3) Sorting. Separate valuable and harmful components to achieve "waste utilization".
2. Composting method. Utilizing the metabolism of microorganisms in nature, self-propagation of microorganisms is carried out under appropriate water and aeration conditions, thereby transforming biodegradable organic matter into stable humus.
3. Sanitary landfill methods. The key issue in the design, construction, and operation of the landfill is to control the free flow of leachate containing a large amount of pollutants such as organic acids, ammonia nitrogen, and heavy metals, so as to centrally treat it after unified collection.
4. General physical and chemical treatment methods. Certain oily, acidic, alkaline or heavy metal-containing waste liquids produced by industrial production are not suitable for direct incineration or landfilling. They must be treated by simple physical and chemical methods. Physical and chemical methods are also comprehensive utilization or pretreatment processes.
5. Safe landfill method. Safe landfill is a disposal method that places or stores hazardous waste in the environment and isolates it from the environment. The purpose is to cut off the connection between waste and the environment. Whether the connection between waste and the environment can be blocked is the key to the success of landfill disposal. A complete safe landfill should include waste reception and storage systems, analysis and monitoring systems, pretreatment systems, anti-seepage systems, leachate collection and drainage systems, rainwater and groundwater collection and drainage systems, leachate treatment systems, leachate monitoring systems, Management systems and utilities.
6. Incineration treatment method. The characteristic of incineration treatment is that it can be harmless, reduced, and recyclable. Incineration can not only dispose of municipal solid waste incineration and general industrial waste, but also can be used to dispose of hazardous waste.
7. Pyrolysis. Under the condition of low oxygen partial pressure, it uses thermal energy to crack large molecular weight organic matter into relatively small molecular weight easy-to-handle compounds or organic substances such as fuel gas, oil and carbon black.